Lysosomal storage diseases  describe a heritable group of rare human disorders characterized by the accumulation of undigested macromolecules usually as a consequence of deficiency of a single enzyme required for the metabolism of lipids, glycoproteins (sugar containing proteins) or so-called mucopolysaccharides within the lysosome, which results in an increase in the size and number of these organelles and ultimately in cellular dysfunction and clinical abnormalities. LSDs occur with incidences of less than 1:100.000, however, as a group the incidence is about 1:5000 - 1:10.000. Most of these disorders are autosomal recessively inherited, however a few are X-linked recessively inherited, such as Fabry disease and Hunter syndrome (MPS II).
The lysosome is commonly referred to as the cell’s recycling center because it processes unwanted material into substances that the cell can utilize. Lysosomes break down this unwanted matter via enzymes, highly specialized proteins essential for survival. Lysosomal disorders are triggered when a particular enzyme exists in too small an amount or is missing altogether. When this happens, substances accumulate in the cell. In other words, when the lysosome doesn’t function normally, excess products destined for breakdown and recycling are stored in the cell.
Lysosomal storage diseases affect mostly children and they often die at a young and unpredictable age, many within a few months or years of birth. Many other children die of this disease following years of suffering from various symptoms of their particular disorder. The symptoms of lysosomal storage disease vary, depending on the particular disorder and other variables like the age of onset, and can be mild to severe. They can include developmental delay, movement disorders, seizures, dementia, deafness and/or blindness. Some people with Lysosomal storage disease have enlarged livers(hepatomegaly) and enlarged spleens (splenomegaly), pulmonary and cardiac problems, and bones that grow abnormally.

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